Rajinder J. Khosla, recipient of the 1990 IEEE Frederik Philips Award for initiating and leading the development of a microelectronics program that led to his company’s preeminence in high-density imaging sensors.
Telegraph Siphon Recorder by Muirhead & Co. Ltd. from the Ballingskelligs cable station in the Irish Republic. This station was opened in 1873 only nine years after the epic voyage of the Great Eastern which laid the first successful submarine cable across the Atlantic. The Siphon Recorder was invented by Lord Kelvin in 1867 for use with the new trans-Atlantic telegraph cable laid successfully at the third attempt in 1865. Due to the length of the cable- 4,000 + miles - there was an immediate requirement for an instrument of unparalleled sensitivity and Lord Kelvin devised the Syphon Recorder to satisfy this need. As sensitive as the mirror galvanometer it had the advantage of also creating a permanent record of the received signal. The recorder translated the incoming signal into a series of squiggles on a paper ribbon. These were then interpreted by a telegraph clerk. Syphon recorders were highly complex and expensive and were only used on long distances where the usual equipment was insufficient, in consequence they were never common and most surviving examples are in museums.
Urania Coeli, motus scrutatur et astra (Urania Coeli searches for the movement of the stars), engraved by Joseph Zucchi after Angelica Kauffmann, 1781. Urania is depicted as the Muse of astronomy and is using dividers to measure constellations on an astronomical globe.